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叉车之类的工业车辆,该如何选购锂电池?

   日期:2019-10-15     浏览:399    评论:0    
核心提示:锂电池作为新一代高性能电池出现在人们的视野中已有十多年的时间了,其中,大容量,大功率锂电池用于电动叉车行业也有三至四年的时长了。因锂电池不同与铅酸电池的简单连接就可使用,而是需要先配组,加装智能管理及保护控制器,并制作完整的锂电池外箱才可使用,所以,属于典型的细分定制市场。目前市场上可选用的叉车锂电池组并不太多,行业内对此了解也不深刻,多数用户还处于观望或者试用的阶段。对此,我们特别针对叉车锂电池组的应用选型给大家一些建议。

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选电池要经过考验才能够筛选出来

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叉车锂电池首先选择锂电池电芯的品牌。国内目前有约大小600家锂电池厂,生产规模,品质工艺,客户市场各不相同;一般来说,自动化程度越高,原材料(电解液,隔膜,正负极材料等)选择渠道越严格,产量规模越大,其锂电池电芯的质量也就越好;以磷酸铁锂电芯为例,中国目前是全球最大的磷酸铁锂电池生产地,目前排名靠前的且有大量出口应用的知名品牌锂电电芯其生产规模产能是很多国内小型锂电池厂的几十倍,且生产工艺严格,基本实现全自动化生产封闭式无尘生产,因此质量可靠(小编所用的电芯就是国内前三甲)。目前,日系的松下,三洋和韩系的三星,LG等主要是三元聚合物锂电池路线,其磷酸铁锂产品很少。

电池的一致性配组很重要。

有了好的电芯,其容量,内阻,电压等参数的一致性直接影响到了电池的寿命及放电容量。建议选择电池电芯之间电压偏差在20mv以内;频繁使用的车辆,要选择电压偏差在10mv以内的电芯;(此指标在锂电池管理控制器的显示器上可以观察到,以电池静置(非充非放)时的参数为标准);电池一致性越高,其电芯分担的容量越平均,各电芯出力就越稳定,电池寿命就越长,容量也稳定,就不会产生新电池刚到使用时间长,1~2年后衰减快的现象了。

锂电池保护及管理控制器,BMS 的选择也至关重要

锂电池属于活跃材料电池,其内阻很小,是铅酸电池的十分之一左右,因此,对电池的过度充电,过度放电,过高、低温,冲击电流,短路等危害电池性能的各类工况要实时监测,及时切断危险源。一款好的锂电池保护及管理控制器相当于给锂电池加装了智能保护铠甲,在受到外部危险源影响的时候,BMS 可以在微秒级的时间内对电池主回路做出切断动作响应,以保证电池及人身财产的安全;同时,建议选择带有全时主动均衡电路的BMS ,以保障电池在长期使用后,产生不一致时可以及时被均衡电路补电或放电,由此,可以有效延长电池寿命至少30%;

电池Pack的安全设计

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箱体设计

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锂电电芯类型的选择

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