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数控加工,如何选择合适的走刀方式

   日期:2020-03-19     浏览:270    评论:0    
核心提示:数控加工设备​和其配套的CAM 系统,在机械生产领域得到了广泛的应用和发展。CAM 系统生成的加工刀具轨迹(也叫走刀方式)是控制设备加工运作的核心,它直接影响加工工件的精度、表面粗糙度、总体加工时间和机床刀具的使用寿命等多个方面,最终决定生产效率。

数控加工设备四川快乐12和其配套的CAM 系统,在机械生产领域得到了广泛的应用和发展。CAM 系统生成的加工刀具轨迹(也叫走刀方式)是控制设备加工运作的核心,它直接影响加工工件的精度、表面粗糙度、总体加工时间和机床刀具的使用寿命等多个方面,最终决定生产效率。

数控加工,如何选择合适的走刀方式

ZHEILI,ZUOZHEGENJUZOUDAOFANGSHIDEBUTONGTEDIAN,YIJIDUIYINGXIANGQIXUANZEDEBUFENYINSUDEFENXI,BINGQIEZHENDUIXIANXUEGUOCHENGZHONGGONGYIFANGFAJIZOUDAOFANGSHIDEBIJIAO,WEIRUHEXUANZEHESHIDEZOUDAOFANGSHITIGONGLECANKAOYIJU。

一、走刀方式

1、ZOUDAOFANGSHIDEJIBENGAINIAN

SHUKONGJIAGONGZHONG,ZOUDAOFANGSHISHIZHIDAOJUWANCHENGGONGJIANQIEXUESHIDEGUIJIGUIHUAFANGSHI。ZAIDUITONGYIGELINGJIANJIAGONGDEGUOCHENGZHONG,DUOZHONGZOUDAOFANGSHIDOUKEYIDADAOLINGJIANDECHICUNJIJINGDUYAOQIU,DANSHIJIAGONGXIAOLVQUEBUXIANGTONG。

2、ZOUDAOFANGSHIDEFENLEI

四川快乐12ZOUDAOFANGSHIKEHUAFENWEISILEI:DANXIANGZOUDAO、WANGFUZOUDAO、HUANQIEZOUDAOHEFUHEZOUDAO。FUHEZOUDAOSHIQIANSANZHONGDEHUNHEZOUDAO。CAIYONGDANXIANGHUOWANGFUZOUDAO,CONGJIAGONGCELVELAISHUODOUSHIXINGQIEZOUDAO。YINCIGENJUJIAGONGCELVEDEBUTONG,ZOUDAOFANGSHIYOUKEFENWEIXINGQIE、HUANQIEHEQITATESHUFANGSHI。TONGCHANGSHIYONGDESHIXINGQIEHEHUANQIE。

XINGQIEFANGSHIJIAGONG,YOULIYUFAHUIJICHUANGDEZUIDAJINJISUDU,TONGSHIQIQIEXUEBIAOMIANZHILIANGYEHAOYUHUANQIEJIAGONG。RANER,DANGFUZADEPINGMIANXINGQIANGDAIYOUDUOGETUTAICONGERXINGCHENGDUOGENEILUNKUOSHI,CHANGCHANGHUICHANSHENGFUJIADETAIDAODONGZUO, JIZAIDAOJUGUIJIMOUCHU,HUOZHEWEIBIMIANDAOJUYUTUTAIFASHENGGANSHE,HUOZHEWEISHIDAOJUHUIZHISHENGYUWEIJIAGONGQUYU, JIUYAORANGDAOJUTAIQI,SHIZHIJUJIAGONGPINGMIANYOUYIDINGGAODU,ZAIPINGYIZHILINGWAIYIDAOJUGUIJIQISHICHU,RANHOUJIXUQIEXUEDONGZUO。

XINGQIEJIAGONGDAOJUGUIJIZHUYAOYOUYIXILIEYUMOUYIGUDINGFANGXIANGPINGXINGDEZHIXIANDUANZUCHENG,JISUANBIJIAOJIANDAN。SHIYONGYUJIANDANXINGQIANGJINGJIAGONGHUOQUCHUDAYULIANGDECUJIAGONG。

HUANQIEJIAGONGZHONGDAOJUYANZHEBIANJIELUNKUOXIANGSIDELUJINGZOUDAO,YOUYIZUFENGBIQUXIANZUCHENG,NENGBAOZHENGDAOJUQIEXUELINGJIANSHIBAOCHIXIANGTONGDEQIEXUEZHUANGTAI。YOUYUHUANQIEJIAGONGSHITONGGUOLIANXUPIANZHIGOUZAODANGQIANHUANXINGGUIJITULAIJISUANXIAYITIAOHUANXINGGUIJI,JISUANFUZAQIEHAOSHI。SHIYONGYUFUZAXINGQIANGJIQUMIANDEJIAGONG。

二、影响走刀方式的因素

四川快乐121、GONGJIANZISHENDEXINGZHUANGJIJIHEYAOSU:GONGJIANZISHENDEXINGZHUANGJIJIHEYAOSUBAOKUOJIAGONGYUDEJIHEXINGZHUANG、DAOYUDEDAXIAOHEWEIZHIDENGFANGMIAN。ZHEISHIGONGJIANBENSHENGUYOUDETEXING,SHISHUYUBUKEBIANHUADEYINSU,DANQUESHIJUEDINGZOUDAOFANGSHIDEGENBENYINSU。

2、GONGYILUXIAN:GONGYILUXIANSHISHIXIANJIAGONGMUDEDEZHIJIEGUOCHENG,SHIZOUDAOFANGSHIXUANZEDEZHIJIEYIJU。GONGYILUXIANJUEDINGLEJIAGONGYUDEXIANHOUSHUNXU,DAOYUDEHEBINGJICHAIFEN,CUJIAGONG、BANJINGJIAGONG、JINGJIAGONGDEHUAFENDENG。SHIXIANMUBIAODEGONGYILUXIANYOUDUOZHONG,ZHEIJIUJUEDINGLEZOUDAOFANGSHIDEBUTONGXUANZE。

3、GONGJIANCAILIAO:GONGJIANCAILIAOYESHIJUEDINGZOUDAOFANGSHIDEYINSUZHIYI,GONGJIANCAILIAOSHIZHIJIEDEJIAGONGDUIXIANG,BINGBUZHIJIEYINGXIANGZOUDAOFANGSHI,DANHUIDUIDAOJUCAILIAO、DAXIAO、JIAGONGFANGSHIDENGXUANYONGCHANSHENGYINGXIANG,CONGERJIANJIEYINGXIANGZOUDAOFANGSHI。GONGJIANMAOPIDEXINGZHUANGHEDAXIAODENGHUIZAOCHENGGONGJIANGEBUFENDEJIAGONGYULIANGFENPEISHIFOUJUNYUN,TONGSHIDUIKEXUANMAOPIDEGONGJIAN,LIYONGMAOPIDAXIAO、XINGZHUANGDEBUTONG,HUIGAIBIANZHUANGJIAFANGSHI、JIAGONGYUDEZHONGXINFENPEIDENGYINGXIANGJIAGONGCELVE,DAOZHICAIQUBUTONGDEZOUDAOFANGSHI。

4、GONGJIANDEZHUANGJIAJIJINGUFANGSHI:GONGJIANDEZHUANGJIAJIJINGUFANGSHIYEJIANJIEYINGXIANGZOUDAOFANGSHI,RUYABANCHANSHENGDEXIN“DAOYU”DEYINGXIANG,JINGULIDUIQIEXUEYONGLIANGYINGXIANGERDAOZHIZOUDAOFANGSHIDEGAIBIAN,ZHENDONGDUIZOUDAOFANGSHIYINGXIANG。

5、DAOJUDEXUANYONG:DAOJUDEXUANYONGBAOKUODAOJUCAILIAO、DAOJUXINGZHUANG、DAOJUZHANGDU、DAOJUCHISHUDENG,ZHEIXIECANSHUJUEDINGLEDAOJUYUGONGJIANJIECHUDEMIANJIDAXIAOHEPINLV,YINERJUEDINGLEDANWEISHIJIANLIQIEXUECAILIAODETIJIDAXIAOHEJICHUANGFUHE,QINAIMOCHENGDUYUDAOJUSHOUMINGZEJUEDINGLEQIEXUESHIJIANDEZHANGDUAN。ERQIZHONGDUIZOUDAOFANGSHICHANSHENGZHIJIEYINGXIANGDESHIDAOJUDAXIAO(JIZHIJING)。YOUYUXUANQUBUTONGZHIJINGDEDAOJU,HUIYINGXIANGCANLIUQUYUDEDAXIAO,ZAOCHENGJIAGONGGUIJIDEBIANHUA,DAOZHIZOUDAOFANGSHIDEBUTONG。

四川快乐126、JIAGONGYUXUANZE:ZAIXIANXUEGUOCHENGZHONG,DANGFUZADEPINGMIANXINGQIANGDAIYOUDUOGETUTAICONGERXINGCHENGDUOGENEILUNKUOSHI,DUIYUXINGQIECHANGCHANGHUICHANSHENGFUJIADETAIDAODONGZUO;DUIYUHUANQIEZEHUISHIJIAGONGGUIJIJIAZHANG。ZHEIZHONGFUJIATAIDAODONGZUOHUOJIAGONGGUIJIJIAZHANG,ZEHUIYANZHONGJIANGDIQIEXUEJIAGONGDEXIAOLV。YINCI,RUHEZUIDAXIANDUDIJIANSHAOZHEIZHONGZHUANGKUANGDECISHUJIUSHIWOMENSUOGUANZHUDEYIGEZHUYAOWENTI。

BAZHENGGEQIEXUEQUYUANJIAGONGXUYAOFENCHENGRUOGANZIQUYU,FENBIEJIAGONGGEZIQUYU,TAIDAOFASHENGZAIGEZIQUYUZHIJIAN,TONGSHIGENJUZOUDAOFANGSHIDUIZHEIXIEJIAGONGZIQUYUHEBINGHUOFENGE,SHENZHIYUHULVE。ZHEIZHONGBUTONGDEJIAGONGYUXUANZE,JIJIANSHAOLETAIDAOCISHUYOUBUHUISHIJIAGONGGUIJIDEXIANGDUIBIANZHANG,TONGSHIKEYIDUIXINQUYUCAIYONGJIAOWEIHELIDEZOUDAOFANGSHI,TISHENGJIAGONGXIAOLV。

三、走刀方式的合理选择

1、基本选择原则

XUANZEZOUDAOFANGSHISHIYAOKAOLVLIANGDIAN:YISHIJIAGONGSHIJIANDEZHANGDUAN,ERSHIJIAGONGYULIANGSHIFOUJUNYUN。YIBANLAISHUO,HUANQIEFANGSHISHIJIYUGONGJIANXINGZHUANGDEZOUDAOFANGSHI,JIAGONGYULIANGJIAOJUNYUN。ERXUANYONGXINGQIEFANGSHIDEJIAGONGYULIANGJIAOBUJUNYUN,RUOXIWANGXINGQIEJIAGONGHOULIUXIAJIAOJUNYUNDEYULIANG,TONGCHANGXUYAOZENGJIAWEIRAOBIANJIEDEHUANQIEDAOGUI。RUOHULVEYULIANGBUJUNYUNXINGYAOQIU,XINGQIEZOUDAODEDAOGUIZHANGDUTONGCHANGSHIBIJIAODUANDE;RUOKAOLVYULIANGDEBUJUNYUNXINGERZENGJIAHUANQIEDAOGUI,DANGJIAGONGQUYUBIANJIEJIAOZHANG(RUDUODAOYUQINGKUANG),ZEWEIRAOBIANJIEDEHUANQIEDAOGUIDUIZONGDEJIAGONGSHIJIANYINGXIANGBIJIAOMINGXIAN,XINGQIEDAOGUIYIBANHUIBIHUANQIEDAOGUIZHANG。XINGQIEZOUDAODAOWEIRONGYIJISUAN,ZHANYONGNEICUNSHAO,DANTAIDAOCISHUJIAODUO。CAIYONGHUANXINGDAOGUISHI,ZEXUYAODUOCIDUIHUANBIANJIEJINXINGPIANZHIBINGQINGCHUZIJIAOHUAN。

2、根据外形特征选择

四川快乐12GONGJIANWAIXINGTEZHENGJUEDINGLEJIAGONGDEZOUDAOFANGSHI。GENJUJIAGONGGETIDEBUTONG,KEJIANGGONGJIANJIANDANDEFENCHENGPINGMIANXINGQIANGLEIHEZIYOUQUMIANLEI。PINGMIANXINGQIANGLEIYIBANCAIYONGXINGQIEFANGSHIJIAGONG,YOUYUGAILEIGONGJIANDUOWEIMAOPIZHENGTITAOXIANJIAGONGCHENGXING,RUHETI、JIZUODENGLINGJIAN,JIAGONGYULIANGJIAODA,CAIYONGXINGQIEFANGSHIYOULIYUFAHUIJICHUANGDEZUIDAJINJISUDU,TIGAOJIAGONGXIAOLV,TONGSHIQIQIEXUEBIAOMIANZHILIANGYEHAOYUHUANQIEJIAGONG。

四川快乐12ZIYOUQUMIANLEIYIBANCAIYONGHUANQIEJIAGONG,ZHUYAOSHIYOUYUQUMIANDUOWEIZHUJIANHUOYOUGUIZEXINGZHUANGJIAGONGCHENGXING,YULIANGFENBUBUJUNYUN,TONGSHIQUMIANDUIXINGMIANJINGDUYAOQIUJIAOGAO;QICISHIHUANQIEJIAGONGYUXINGQIEFANGSHIXIANGBIJUYOULIANGHAODEQUMIANJIAGONGTEXING,GENGNENGBIJINQUMIANDEZHENSHIXINGZHUANG。

3、根据加工策略选择

LINGJIANDEJIAGONGCHANGFENWEICUJIAGONG、BANJINGJIAGONG、JINGJIAGONGSANGEJIAGONGJIEDUAN,YOUSHIHAIYOUGUANGZHENGJIAGONGJIEDUAN,HELIHUAFENJIAGONGJIEDUANSHIBAOZHENGJIAGONGJINGDUSUOBIXUDE。CHUANTONGJIAGONGFANGSHIYINJICHUANGGONGNENGXIANGDUIDANYI,SUOYIGONGYILUXIANZHONGKEJIAOMINGXIANDIKANCHUGEGEJIEDUANDEJIEXIAN,DANSHUKONGXIANXUEJIAGONGFANGSHIXIAZHEIGEJIEXIANXIANGDUIMOHU,ERQIEKENENGHUIYOUROUHEDEQINGKUANG(RUCUJIAGONGJIEDUANYOUJINGJIAGONGDENEIRONG,JINGJIAGONGJIEDUANYEKENENGYOUCUJIAGONGDEHENJI),CONGBAOZHENGJIAGONGZHILIANGKAOLV,SHUKONGJIAGONGSHIJIAGONGJIEDUANDEHUAFENYESHIXUYAODE,DANWEILEJIANSHAOZHUANGJIASHIJIANHEJIANHUAZOUDAODONGZUODENG,RUHEQUEDINGGEJIEDUANDEJIAGONGNEIRONG,KAOLVDEWENTIKENENGYUCHUANTONGJIAGONGGONGYIYOUXIEBUTONG。

CUJIAGONGDEZHUYAOMUBIAOSHIZHUIQIUDANWEISHIJIANNEIDECAILIAOQUCHULV,BINGWEIBANJINGJIAGONGZHUNBEIGONGJIANDEJIHELUNKUO。GUDUOCAIYONGXINGQIEFANGSHIHUOFUHEFANGSHIJINXINGCENGQIE。BANJINGJIAGONGDEZHUYAOMUBIAOSHISHIGONGJIANLUNKUOXINGZHUANGPINGZHENG,BIAOMIANJINGJIAGONGYULIANGJUNYUN。GUDUOCAIYONGHUANQIEFANGSHI。JINGJIAGONGDEZHUYAOMUBIAOSHIHUODEJIHECHICUN、XINGZHUANGJINGDUJIBIAOMIANZHILIANGFUHEYAOQIUDEGONGJIAN。YINGGENJUGONGJIANDEJIHETEZHENGDUINEIBUCAIYONGXINGQIEFANGSHI,DUIBIANYUANJIJIEHECHUCAIYONGHUANQIEFANGSHI。

4、根据编程策略选择

BIANCHENGSHI,QUEDINGZOUDAOFANGSHIDEYUANZEZHUYAOYOU:YINGNENGBAOZHENGLINGJIANDEJIAGONGJINGDUHEBIAOMIANCUCAODUDEYAOQIUYINGJINLIANGSUODUANJIAGONGLUXIAN,JIANSHAODAOJUKONGCHENGYIDONGSHIJIAN;YINGSHISHUZHIJISUANJIANDAN,CHENGXUDUANSHULIANGSHAO,YIJIANSHAOBIANCHENGGONGZUOLIANG。YIBANERYAN,DUIYUPINGMIANXINGQIANGLEICAIYONGXINGQIEFANGSHIHUAFENJIAGONGYU,YIJIANSHAOTAIDAOCISHU;ZIYOUQUMIANLEIHUANQIEFANGSHIBIJINXINGZHUANG。MAOPIXINGZHUANGDEXUANYONGDAXIAOHUIYINGXIANGBIANCHENGDEXUANZE,KETONGGUOJIADAMAOPIWAIXING,JIANGBUYIZHUANGJIADEWAIXINGJIAGONGZHUANHUAWEIYIZHUANGJIADEXINGQIEFANGSHIXINGQIANGJIAGONG;HUOJIANGYONGHUANQIEJIAGONGDEZIYOUQUMIANGAIYONGXINGQIEFANGSHIQUDAYULIANG,YITIGAOJIAGONGXIAOLV。

(YUANBIAOTI:SHUKONGJIAGONGZHENGQUEXUANZEZOUDAOFANGSHIJIQIAO)

 
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