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切削加工时,如何应对“难加工材料”?

   日期:2020-04-13     浏览:226    评论:0    
核心提示:对于那些“特殊”的材料,有的需在高温、高应力状态下加工,有的要能耐腐蚀、耐磨损,有的要能绝缘,有的需有超高的电导率。因此,现代新型工程材料不断地涌现。

DUIYUNEIXIE“TESHU”DECAILIAO,YOUDEXUZAIGAOWEN、GAOYINGLIZHUANGTAIXIAJIAGONG,YOUDEYAONENGNAIFUSHI、NAIMOSUN,YOUDEYAONENGJUEYUAN,YOUDEXUYOUCHAOGAODEDIANDAOLV。YINCI,XIANDAIXINXINGGONGCHENGCAILIAOBUDUANDIYONGXIAN。

CAILIAONANJIAGONGDEYUANYIN,YIBANYOUYIXIAJIGEFANGMIAN:

①GAOYINGDU;

②GAOQIANGDU;

③GAOSUXINGHEGAORENXING;

④DISUXINGHEGAOCUIXING;

⑤DIDAOREXING;

⑥YOUDALIANGWEIGUANYINGZHIDIANHUOYINGJIAZAWU;

⑦HUAXUEXINGZHIHUOPO。

ZHEIXIETEXINGHUIRANGQIEXUEGUOCHENGZHONGDEQIEXUELIJIADA,QIEXUEWENDUSHENGGAO,DAOJUDEMOSUNHUIJIAJU,DAOJUSHIYONGSHOUMINGYEHUISUODUAN;YOUSHIHAIHUISHIYIJIAGONGBIAOMIANZHILIANGEHUA,QIEXIENANYIKONGZHI;ZUIZHONGJIANGDILEJIAGONGDEZHILIANG。

切削加工时,如何应对“难加工材料”?

 

一、高强度、超高强度钢的切削加工性

四川快乐12GAOQIANGDUGANG、CHAOGAOQIANGDUGANGDEBANJINGJIAGONG、JINGJIAGONGHEBUFENCUJIAGONGZAICHANGTAIDIAOZHIZHUANGTAIXIAJINXING。DIAOZHI(CUIHUO、ZHONGWENHUIHUO)HOUDEJINXIANGZUZHIWEISUOSHITIHUOTUOSHITI,YINGDUDAHRC35—55。YIBAN,σs>1GPaHUOσb>1.1GPaDEJIEGOUGANG,CHENGWEIGAOQIANGDUGANG;σs>1.2GPaHUOσb>1.5GPaCHENGWEICHAOGAOQIANGDUGANG。QIYANSHENLVHECHONGJIZHISUIYOUSUOJIANGDI,DANYOUXIEGANGZHONG(RU38CrNiMoVA)DIAOZHIHOUDESUXINGHERENXINGRENGRANBUDIYUZHONGTANZHENGHUOGANG。HANTANLIANGDE0.30%—0.50%ZHIJIAN,HEJINYUANSUZONGLIANGBUCHAOGUO6%DE,WEIDIHEJINGAOQIANGDUGANG、CHAOGAOQIANGDUGANG,ZAISHENGCHANZHONGYONGDEZUIDUO。HAIYOUHEJINYUANSUHANLIANGGENGDUODEZHONGHEJIN、GAOHEJINGAOQIANGDUGANGYUCHAOGAOQIANGDUGANG,TADEJIAGONGNANDUGENGDA。

四川快乐12YUPUTONGTANSUJIEGOUGANGXIANGBI,GAOQIANGDUGANG、CHAOGAOQIANGDUGANGDEQIANGDUGAO(DOUBI45GANGGAOCHU1BEIHUO1BEIYISHANG),DAOREXISHUPIANDI,GUQIEXUELIDA(WEIJIAGONG4.5GANGDE1.2—1.3BEI),QIEXUEWENDUGAO(BIJIAGONG45GANGGAOCHU100—200℃),DAOJUMOSUNKUAI,DAOJUSHIYONGSHOUMINGDUAN[93],DUANXIEYISHAONAN。

GENJUSHANGSHUTEDIAN,BIXUCAIYONGNAIMOXINGQIANGDEDAOJUCAILIAO。ANCUJIAGONG、BANJINGJIAGONG、JINGJIAGONGDEYAOQIU,YINGFENBIECAIYONGBUTONGPAIHAODEYTLEIYINGZHIHEJIN,JIANYISHITIANJIATAN、NIDEPAIHAO。GAOSUJINGJIAGONGSHI,YINGCAIYONGGAOTiCHANLIANGBINGTIANJIATANNIDEYTLEIHEJIN、TiCJIHETi(C,N)JIYINGZHIHEJIN、TUCENGYINGZHIHEJINHEFUHEA1203TAOCIDENG。DAOJUQIANJIAOYINGJIAOXIAO,LIRUCHEXUE38CrNi3MoVASHI,QUγ。=4—6º;CHEXUE35CrMnSiASHI,QUγ。=0—-4º。ZAIGONGYIXITONGGANGXINGYUNXUDEQINGKUANGXIA,YINGCAIYONGJIAOXIAODEZHUPIANJIAOkrHEJIAODADEDAOJIANYUANHUBANJINGrε。QIEXUEYONGLIANG,YOUQISHIQIEXUESUDU,YINGBIJIAGONGZHONGTANZHENGHUOGANGSHISHIDANGJIANGDI。JINKENENGCAIYONGQIEXUEYEYUDUANXIECUOSHIYIGAISHANQIEXUETIAOJIAN。

二、高锰钢的切削加工性

GAOMENGGANGDEDIANXINGPAIHAOYOUMnl3、40Mnl8Cr3、50Mnl8Cr4DENG。JINGGUOSHUIRENCHULI,JINXIANGZUZHIWEIJUNYUNDEAOSHITI。TADEYUANSHIYINGDUSUIBUSHENGAO,DANSHIQISUXINGHERENXINGTEBIEGAO(FENBIEWEI45GANGDE4BEIHE8BEI),JIAGONGYINGHUATEBIEYANZHONG。JIAGONGYINGHUAHOU,KEGAODAHB500ZUOYOU。QIEXUEGUOCHENGZHONG,GONGJIANBIAOMIANSHANGHAIHUIXINGCHENGGAOYINGDUDEYANGHUACENG(Mn203)。TADEDAOREXISHUHENXIAO,YUEWEI45GANGDE1/4。YINCI,QIEXUEWENDUHENGAO,QIEXUELIYUEBIJIAGONG45GANGSHIZENGDA60%。GAOMENGGANGBIGAOQIANGDUGANGGENGNANJIAGONG。

四川快乐12JIAGONGGAOMENGGANG,YINGXUANYONGYINGDUGAO、YOUYIDINGRENXING、DAOREXISHUJIAODA、GAOWENXINGNENGHAODEDAOJUCAILIAO。ZAICUJIAGONGDESHIHOU,KEYICAIYONGYGLEI、YHLEIHUOYWLEIYINGZHIHEJIN;JINGJIAGONGSHI,KECAIYONGYTl4、YG6XDENGHEJIN。SHIJIANBIAOMING,YONGFUHEYANGHUALVTAOCIGAOSUJINGCHEGAOMENGGANG,XIAOGUOHENHAO。CONGTIGAOQIEXUERENQIANGDUHESANRETIAOJIANCHUFA,QIANJIAOYINGXUANXIAOZHI。DANWEISHIQIEXIEBIANXINGBUZHIGUODA,QIANJIAOYOUBUYIGUOXIAO。YIBAN,QUγ。=-5—5º,α。=8—12º,λs=0—-5º。QIEXUESUDUYINGJIAODI,YIBANWEIVc=20—49m/min;ZHIYOUYONGFUHEYANGHUALVTAOCIJINGCHESHI,KEYILAIYONGGAOYU100m/minDEQIEXUESUDU。JINJILIANGHEQIEXUESHENDUJUNBUNENGGUOXIAO,YIMIANQIEXUERENHUODAOJIANZAISHANGYIDAOGONGXUXINGCHENGDEYINGHUACENGZHONGHUAGUOERJIASUDAOJUDEMOSUN。

三、冷硬铸铁和淬硬钢的切削加工性

YIBANLAISHUO,LENGYINGZHUTIEDEYINGDUJIGAO,ZHEISHIQINANJIAGONGDEZHUYAOYUANYIN。LENGYINGZHUTIEDESUXINGHENDI,DAO—XIEJIECHUZHANGDUHENXIAO,QIEXUELIHEQIEXUEREDOUJIZHONGZAIQIEXUERENFUJIN,YINERQIEXUERENHENRONGYIBENGSUN。LENGYINGZHUTIELINGJIANDEJIEGOUCHICUNHEJIAGONGYULIANGYIBANDOUJIAODA,MAOPIJINGDUDI,YINERJIUJINYIBUJIADALEJIAGONGNANDU。

四川快乐12JIAGONGLENGYINGZHUTIEYINGXUANYONGYINGDU、QIANGDUDOUHAODEDAOJUCAILIAO,YIBANJUNCAIYONGXIJINGLIHUOCHAOXIJINGLIDEYGLEIHEYHLEIYINGZHIHEJIN。SHIJIANBIAOMING,YONGFUHEYANGHUALVHUODANHUAGUITAOCIDUILENGYINGZHUTIEJINXINGJINGJIAGONG、BANJINGJIAGONGFEICHANGYOUXIAO,DAOJUSHIYONGSHOUMINGHESHENGCHANLVBIZHIYINGZHIHEJINYOUXIANZHUTIGAO。WEILETIGAOQIEXUERENHEDAOJIANDEQIANGDU,YIBANQUγ。=0—-4º,α。=4—6º,λs= 0—-5º,ZHUPIANJIAOkrSHIDANGJIANXIAO,DAOJIANYUANHUBANJINGrεSHIDANGJIADA。

CUIYINGGANGDEZUZHIWEIHUIHUOMASHITI,YINGDUDAHRC60YISHANG,SUXINGHEDAOREXISHUDOUHENDI。QIJIAGONGXINGJIDAOJUCAILIAO、DAOJUJIHECANSHUDEXUANZEJIBENSHANGYULENGYINGZHUTIETONG。DUITAMENJINXINGJINGJIAGONG,KECAIYONGCBNDAOJU。

四、纯金属的加工

四川快乐12CHANGYONGDECHUNJINSHUYOUZITONG、CHUNLV、CHUNTIEDENG,TAMENDEYINGDU、QIANGDUDOUJIAODI,DAOREXISHUDA,DUIYUQIEXUEJIAGONGFEICHANGLI;DANSHITAMENDESUXINGHENGAO,QIEXIEBIANXINGDA,DAO—XIEJIECHUZHANGDUDABINGRONGYIFASHENGLENGHAN,SHENGCHENGJIXIELIU,YINCIQIEXUELIJIAODA,BURONGYIHUODEHAODEYIJIAGONGBIAOMIANZHILIANG,DUANXIEKUNNAN。CIWAI,TAMENDEXIANPENGZHANGXISHUJIAODA,JINGJIAGONGSHIBUYIKONGZHIGONGJIANDEJIAGONGJINGDU。

四川快乐12JIAGONGCHUNJINSHU,KEYIYONGGAOSUGANGDAOJU,YEKEYIYONGYINGZHIHEJINDAOJU。YGHUOYWLEIYINGZHIHEJINKEYONGYUJIAGONGZITONG、CHUNLV,YTHUOYWLEIYINGZHIHEJINKEYONGYUJIAGONGCHUNTIE,YINGCAIYONGDAQIANJIAOHEJIAODADEHOUJIAO(γ。=25—35º,α。=1—12º),MOCHUFENGLIDEQIEXUEREN,YIJIANXIAOQIEXIEBIANXING。YINGJINLIANGCAIYONGJIAOGAODEQIEXUESUDUHEJIAODADEQIEXUESHENDU、JINJILIANG,YITIGAOSHENGCHANLV。

五、不锈钢和高温合金的切削加工性

BUXIUGANGANJINXIANGZUZHIFEN,YOUTIESUTI、MASHITI、AOSHITISANZHONG。TIESUTI、MASHITIBUXIUGANGDECHENGFENYIGEWEIZHU,JINGCHANGZAICUIHUO—HUIHUOHUOTUIHUOZHUANGTAIXIASHIYONG,ZONGHEJIXIEXINGNENGSHIZHONG,QIEXUEJIAGONGYIBANBUTAINAN。AOSHITIBUXIUGANGDECHENGFENYIGE、NIEDENGYUANSUWEIZHU,CUIHUOHOUCHENGAOSHITIZUZHI,QIEXUEJIAGONGXINGBIJIAOCHA,ZHUYAOBIAOXIANZAI:

(1)SUXINGDA,JIAGONGYINGHUAHENYANZHONG,YISHENGCHENGJIXIELIUERSHIYIJIAGONGBIAOMIANZHILIANGEHUA。QIEXUELIYUEBI45  GANG(ZHENGHUO)GAO25%。JIAGONGBIAOMIANYINGHUACHENGDUJIYINGHUACENGSHENDUDA,CHANGJIXIADAOGONGXUDAILAIKUNNAN。QIEBUYIDUAN  XIE。

(2)DAOREXISHUXIAO,ZHIWEI45GANGDE1/3,CHANSHENGDERELIANGBUYICHUANCHU,SUOYIQIEXUEWENDUGAO。

四川快乐12(3)YOUYUQIEXUEWENDUGAO,JIAGONGYINGHUAYANZHONG,JIASHANGGANGZHONGYOUTANHUAWU(TiCDENG),XINGCHENGYINGZHIJIAZAWU,YOUYIYUDAOJUFASHENGLENGHAN,GUDAOJUMOSUNKUAI,SHIYONGSHOUMINGJIANGDI。

GAOWENHEJINDEGAOYINGDUHUAHEWUYOU:

TANHUAWU——RUTiC、VC、NbC、WC、W2CDENG;

DANHUAWU——RUTiN、VN、NbNDENG;

四川快乐12YANGHUAWU——RUAl203、SiO2DENG;

四川快乐12JINSHUJIANHUAHEWU——RUFeCr、CoCr、FeCrMoDENG。

四川快乐12GAOWENHEJINDEJIAGONGYOURUXIATEZHENG:

(1)QIANGDUJIAOGAO,YOUYOUSHIDIKANGSUXINGBIANXINGDENENGLIQIANG,SUOYIQIEXUELIHENDA,DAYUEWEIZHONGTANGANGDEYIBEI。

(2)YINGDUJIAOGAO,YOUQIGAOWENYINGDUGAOYUQITAJINSHUCAILIAO,JIAGONGSHIYOUYUSUXINGBIANXINGERJINYIBUYINGHUA。

(3)DAOREXISHUXIAO,ZHIWEI45GANGDEl/3—1/4,YINCIQIEXUEWENDUHENGAO,DAOJUMOSUNJIAJU。

四川快乐12(4)HEJINZHONGDEGAOYINGDUHUAHEWUGOUCHENGYINGZHIDIAN,JINYIBUJIAJULEDAOJUDEMOSUN。

(5)ZAIZHONG、DIQIEXUESUDUXIA,YIYUDAOJUFASHENGLENGHAN。ZAIGAOSUGAOWENXIA,YOUSHIDAOJUFASHENGJULIEDEKUOSANMOSUN。

四川快乐12YTLEIYINGZHIHEJINDAOJUBUYIYONGYUJIAGONGAOSHITIBUXIUGANGHEGAOWENHEJIN,YINWEIYTLEIYINGZHIHEJINZHONGDETAIYUANSUYIYUGONGJIANCAILIAOZHONGDETAIYUANSUFASHENGQINHEERDAOZHILENGHAN,ZAIGAOWENXIAHAIJIAJULEKUOSANMOSUN。YIBANYICAIYONGYGLEI(JIANYITIANJIATAN、NI,RUYG6A)、YHLEIHUOYWLEIYINGZHIHEJIN,YEKEYICAIYONGGAOXINGNENGGAOSUGANG。DAOMIANYINGMOGUANG,QIEXUCAIQUDUANXIECUOSHI。JIAGONGAOSHITIBUXIUGANGSHI,YICAIYONGJIAODADEQIANJIAO(γ。=15—30ºYIJIANXIAOQIEXIEBIANXING)YUZHONGDENGDEQIEXUESUDU(Vc=50—80m/min,YINGZHIHEJIN)。JIAGONGGAOWENHEJINSHI,YICAIYONGPIANXIAODEQIANJIAO(γ。=0—10º,YITIGAOQIEXUERENDEQIANGDU)YUPIANDIDEQIEXUESUDU(Vc=30—40m/min)YINGZHIHEJIN。WULUNJIAGONGAOSHITIBUXIUGANGHAISHIGAOWENHEJIN,QIESHESHENDUHEJINJILIANGJUNYISHIDANGJIADA,BIMIANQIEXUERENHEDAOJIANHUAGUOYINGHUACENG。

六、钛合金的切削加工性

TAIHEJINJUYOUBIQIANGDUGAO、NAISHIXINGHAO、NAIREXINGGAODENGTEDIAN,BEIGUANGFANYONGYUGEGEJIAGONGLINGYU.TAIHEJINDEQIEXUEJIAGONGXINGHENCHA,DAOJUMOSUNKUAI,DAOJUSHIYONGSHOUMINGDI,JUTIYUANYINRUXIA:

四川快乐12(1)JIAGONGTAIHEJINSHI,JIANQIEJIAOHENDA,BIANXINGXISHUΛhJIEJINYU1,SHUOMINGQIEXIEBIANXINGBUDA,QIEXUELIBIJIAGONGZHONGTANGANGYUEXIAO20%。DANSHITAIDEHUAXUEXINGNENGHUOPO,ZAIGAOWENXIAYIYUDAQIZHONGDEYANG、DANDENGYUANSUHUAHECONGERSHENGCHENGYINGCUIDEWUZHI,JIAJULEDAOJUMOSUN。DAO—XIEJIECHUZHANGDUHENDUAN(ZHIWEIGANGDE1/3—1/4)。

(2)DAOREXISHUJIXIAO,ZHIWEI45GANGDE1/5—1/7,QIEXUEREYOUJIZHONGZAIQIEXUERENFUJIN,GUQIEXUEWENDUHENGAO,YUEBIJIAGONG45GANGSHIGAOCHUYIBEI。

(3)YIJIAGONGBIAOMIANJINGCHANGCHUXIANYINGERCUIDEWAIPI,JIYIHOUGONGXUDAILAIKUNNAN。

四川快乐12(4)DANXINGMOLIANGXIAO,YIJIAGONGBIAOMIANHUIDANLIANGDA,JIAJULEDUIHOUDAOMIANDEMOCA。ZAIGONGSI、JIAOKONGHELAXUESHIYINGXIANGHENDA。

WEIBIMIANGONGJIAN、DAOJUZHONGDETAIYUANSUFASHENGQINHE,JIAGONGTAIHEJINSHIBUYICAIYONGYTLEIYINGZHIHEJINERJIANYIYONGYGLEI、YHLEIHEJIN。WEITIGAOQIEXUERENQIANGDUHESANRETIAOJIAN,KEYICAIYONGJIAOXIAODEQIANJIAO(γ。=5—10º)。YINWEIHUIDANLIANGDA,YIYONGJIAODADEHOUJIAO(α。=10—15º)。QIEXUESUDUBUYIGUOGAO,YIBANWEIVc=40—50m/min。QIEXUESHENDUYUJINJILIANGYISHIDANGJIADA。DUIYUCHENGXINGDAOJUHEFUZADAOJU,YIKECAIYONGCHAOYINGGAOSUGANG。DAOJUJIHECANSHUYUQIEXUEYONGLIANGLINGDING。

 
标签: 切削加工
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